Rapport du réseau européen antiraciste sur le "data-driven policing"
Publication intéressante, résumée dans cette tribune :
(...) We must consider how data is used to construct and further embed ideas of ‘suspicion’ and ‘risk’ for racialised communities. For example, law enforcement agencies across Europe are using technology to support and justify the collection of ‘non-criminal’ information about individuals and their associations (friends, family members, romance links, etc.) who may engage in behaviours which in isolation are ‘non-criminal’ but are viewed with suspicion by law enforcement (e.g. appearing in a rap video or belonging to a gang). Police increasingly use this data to develop priority or suspect lists that include the identification and surveillance of racialised non-criminal individuals. Practices such as social media monitoring, mobile phone extraction, facial recognition technology online and/or in public spaces, or police body-worn cameras all contribute data to the development of such lists.
In the United Kingdom for instance, social media is used to keep track of ‘gang associated individuals’ within the “Gangs Matrix”. If a person shares content on social media that refers to a gang name, or to certain colours, flags, or attire linked to a gang, they may be added to this database, according to research by Amnesty International. Given the racialisation of gangs, it is likely that such technology will be deployed against racialised people and groups.
Another technology, the use of automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) cameras, leads to concerns that cars can be ‘marked’, leading to increased stop and search. The Brandenburg police in Germany used the example of looking for “motorhomes or caravans with Polish license plates” in a recent leaked internal evaluation of the system. Searching for license plates of a particular nationality and looking for ‘motorhomes or caravans’ suggests a discriminatory focus on Travellers or Roma.
Similarly, the use of mobile fingerprint technology enables police to check fingerprints against existing police and government databases (including immigration records). This disproportionately affects racialised communities given the racial disparity of those stopped and searched as well as the disparity of previous biometric databases like DNA databases.
Résumé des recommandations :
We need to challenge these injustices through collective resistance and organising, building coalitions between anti-racist and digital rights activists, academics and lawyers to improve our data security and raise awareness of how police are using technologies. We need to address the current lack of public scrutiny and accountability, which means that governments and policy makers need to develop rigorous monitoring processes holding law enforcement agencies and technology companies accountable for the consequences and effects of technology-driven policing,
(à peu près ce qu'on essaie de faire ici... :)
Le rapport complet : https://www.enar-eu.org/IMG/pdf/data-driven-profiling-web-final.pdf