En Californie, l'abandon croissant de la police prédictive
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Mouvement encourageant, qui montre que les efforts des collectifs mobilisés contre les violences policières et contre la technopolice porte ses fruits (au-delà des interdictions des usages policiers de la reconnaissance faciale). À Santa Cruz, le 23 juin dernier, le conseil municipal a par exemple interdit les systèmes de police prédictive :
When the Santa Cruz city council took up a new ordinance banning predictive policing and facial recognition software on June 23, 2020, Chief Mills [chef de la police municipale] expressed unreserved support. "Predictive policing has been shown over time to put officers in conflict with communities rather than working with the communities," he said. He spoke in support of the mayor to ban the technologies "until such time that it can be peer reviewed and scientifically proven." The vote for the ban was unanimous.
À Los Angeles, le LAPD a mis fin à deux contrats, dont l'un avec PredPol :
Former LAPD Chief and New York City Police Commissioner Bill Bratton was the biggest early booster of predictive policing on the national stage, starting in 1994. First, with the crime tracking system CompStat, later with a host of analytical software products and strategies, he's championed what he describes as the "evolution of policing."
Bratton was brought in first to consult and later to head the LAPD in 2002 by then-Mayor Jim Hahn. A decade later, he led an investigation into Oakland's implementation of CompStat, and issued a scathing critique in 2012.
But while his data-driven reforms were praised at the time, the NYPD has since been court-ordered to produce records about testing, development, and use of predictive analytics tools, and just a few months ago, the LAPD pulled out of two of its predictive policing contracts, including one with PredPol, the same company Santa Cruz was using.
Pour le professeur de droit Andrew Ferguson, il y a un risque que, au-delà de ces interdictions, le mouvement contre les violences policières et l'alliance de facto avec les géants de la tech ne conduise à « retourner » non seullement la surveillance mais aussi le solutionnisme technologique contre la police, en prétendant « corriger » le racisme systémique :
... if appraisals on predictive policing are popping up on city council agendas across California this summer, Andrew Ferguson at American University warns many police officers, politicians and members of the public are still fascinated with the idea that technology is the ticket to 21st century crime fighting, and he has this prediction for us.
"The next thing we're going to see is a response to this demand for police accountability to sort of turn the surveillance gaze on police," Ferguson said. "It's sort of the Silicon Valley way to see an opening and try to pitch it."
He says, like many experts do, there's no technological shortcut to addressing systemic racism in policing.